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What made The Meg so big?

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HAVE you ever wondered why the Megalodon shark became to be so big? Or wondered why some other sharks are much smaller?

In a paper published by Evolution, research led by Swansea University’s Dr Catalina Pimiento and co-authored by an international team of scientists from the UK, Europe and the USA examined the biological traits of all sharks and rays before running a series of evolutionary models to seek how gigantism evolved over time.

The results showed that for a shark to be giant, it would need to first evolve adaptations that enhance feeding such as the ability to control – at least to some degree – their own body temperature or become a filter feeder.

One of the most famous giant sharks, Megalodon – the topic of 2018 Hollywood film The Meg – was an active predator that could measure up to 18 metres in length and became extinct around two million years ago.

Meanwhile, the whale shark – which is still around today – can also reach 18 metres but isn’t an active predator. Instead, it is a filter feeder and eats tiny plankton from the sea.

These two subjects formed key parts of the research, which centred on the tree of life for sharks, where the authors mapped characteristics relating to body size, like their thermo-regulatory capacity, feeding mechanism and diet.

Researchers then found that sharks could become giants by following one of two possible evolutionary pathways; the mesothermic pathway, which consists of evolving the ability to self-control the temperature of their most important organs – or the filter-feeding pathway, which consists of evolving the ability to feed on microscopic plankton.

The mesothermic adaptation allows sharks to live in different types of habitats – including cold waters – and also hunt more effectively. The filter-feeding adaptation allows sharks to eat the most abundant food in the ocean – plankton.

However, there are risks involved for any shark following the evolutionary pathways that lead to gigantism.

The mesothermic species need to consume big prey to maintain their high energetic demands, but when these prey are scarce, giant sharks are more susceptible to extinction. The scarcity of large prey in times of rapid climatic change was the most likely cause of the extinction of Megalodon.

While the filter feeders have shown more resilience, they are at risk of eating large volumes of toxic microplastics that now can be found in the world’s oceans – thus threatening their extinction.
Dr Catalina Pimiento, lead researcher and Postdoctoral fellow at Swansea University, said: “Sharks provide an ideal case study to understand the evolutionary pathways leading to gigantism in the oceans because they display contrasting lifestyles and adaptations and because they have an evolutionary history of at least 250 million years.”

Notes:
Photo credit: Guillermo Torres. Banco de Imágenes Ambientales (BIA), Instituto Alexander von Humboldt.

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Education

Seren and Sbarc kick off new series of books with a story to coincide with Rugby World Cup

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WELSH Government and WRU announced a partnership to encourage more school children to use Welsh.

They have been inspiring school children to use Welsh in and out of the classroom for a while, but Siarter Iaith mascots Seren a Sbarc have now moved on to the next level with their very own book. Released as part of a partnership, the book will be issued to all primary schools in Wales to encourage children to read more Welsh and to cheer Wales on in Welsh.

The book, Seren a Sbarc yn Achub (Cwpan) y Bydysawd (Seren a Sbarc Save the Universe (Cup)), written by Elidir Jones and illustrated by Huw Aaron, tells the tale of the heroic characters fighting off monsters and villains using the skills they have learnt through rugby and speaking Welsh.

The book gives children and parents fun way of learning and using Welsh through rugby, as the nation eagerly watches Wales on their World Cup journey.

All primary schools in Wales will receive copies of the book to help inspire the next generation of Welsh speakers as part of the Siarter Iaith.

Minister for International Relations and Welsh Language, Eluned Morgan, said: “As rugby fever grips the country, children right across Wales will be reading about the heroic antics of Seren and Sbarc as they fight off monsters with their fantastic Welsh and sport skills! This exciting project with the WRU is a great way of inspiring the next generation of Welsh speakers, and future rugby players. Rugby is a sport that brings the nation together and the Welsh language is a big part of that.”

To launch the book, Seren and Sbarc joined pupils of Ysgol Bro Allta in Ystrad Mynach for a busy day of rugby practice and sending good luck messages to the Wales team. Dragons players Aaron Jarvis and James Benjamin also joined the Year 5 and 6 pupils as they carried out tasks from the WRU Digital Classroom resource, launched to inspire pupils to achieve in all areas through rugby.

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Education

Ceredigion Schools Succeed in Exam Results

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The GCSE exam results published today (22 August) by the WJEC show that very high standards are being maintained in Ceredigion schools.

 

98.8% of entries for WJEC exams were graded A* to G, with 24.9% of the entries achieving A* and A grades. 72.5% of entries were graded A* to C.

 

Councillor Catrin Miles is the Cabinet member responsible for Learning Services. She said, “We are delighted with Ceredigion pupils’ achievements in a wide range of subjects. They have proven once again that hard work and commitment leads to success. I would like to sincerely thank staff and governors for their leadership and their continued support for our pupils. We wish the young people of Ceredigion the very best as they confidently progress on their chosen path.”

 

The following table provides the figures for Ceredigion and Wales:

           Ceredigion                                                Wales
Grade   A* – A                              24.9%                                                     18.4%
Grade A*-C                                  72.5%                                                     62.8%
Grade A*-G                                 98.8%                                                     97.2%

 

Compared with the Welsh average, an additional 6% of Ceredigion entries achieved A*-A grades and, in the case of A*-C grades, Ceredigion’s entries achieved almost 10% more than the Welsh average.

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Education

GCSE joy at Ysgol Uwchradd Aberteifi

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There was delight at Ysgol Uwchradd Aberteifi yesterday as students celebrated the GCSE results.

Headteacher Nicola James said: “In a year when key performance measures have changed, it is pleasing to note that our Capped 9 score (the pupils’ best 9 GCSE results including Numeracy, Literacy and Science) has increased to over 400.

“Our focus is on maximising the progress of every pupil across a broad range of subjects, and most of our students sat between 12 and 14 GCSEs or equivalent qualifications.

“We are proud of the achievements of all our students, which are the result of their hard work and the input of our excellent teaching and support staff who ensure high quality learning experiences and pastoral care for all students.

“I congratulate everyone on their success.”

There were many noteworthy individual successes, including: Catrin Rees 9A*, 4A; Sarah Greenshields 8A*, 6A; Emily Cross 6A*, 6A, 2B; Lleucu Berwyn 5A*, 6A, 1B; Lol Maskell 4A*, 7A, 4B; Tessa Hieatt 2A*, 9A, 3B; Georgia Harrington 2A*, 8A, 4B; Lowri Adams-Lewis 2A*, 8A, 3B,1C; Ewan Kelly 2A*, 6A, 5B; Ashleigh Gordon 2A*, 6A, 4B, 1C; Hatty Francis 9A, 4B, 1C; Amy Dangerfield 8A, 5B, 1D; Rhys Hughes 1A*, 6A, 7B; Emily Holmes 7A, 4B, 2C.

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